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According to tribal history handed down from generation to generation, our people lived here since the beginning of time. Prior to acquiring the horse, the Utes lived off the land establishing a unique relationship with the ecosystem. They would travel and camp in familiar sites and use well established routes such as the Ute Trail that can still be seen in the forests of the Grand Mesa, and the forerunner of the scenic highway traversing through South Park, and Cascade, Colorado.

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The disorder brings with it a series of symptoms such as strong feelings of sadness and guilt, a loss of interest or pleasure, irregular sleeping patterns, a loss of energy, decreased ability to concentrate, and an increase or decrease of appetite. Early Christians also believed the plant had mystical properties. Hyperforin is a potent reuptake inhibitor of serotonin, dopamine, noradrenaline, GABA, and L-glutamate from the synaptic cleft Calapai et al. Due to its chemical structure, hypericin is highly photoreactive. An opened capsule is shown in the bottom left, and a flower petal is more The SJW has been considered a medicinally valuable plant for over years.

Essential oils are found in concentrations ranging from 0. Moreover, the levels of hypericin necessary to obtain ificant MAO inhibition were far greater than those likely to be found in human brain tissue at normal doses Suzuki et al. Tricyclics include amitriptyline brand name: Elavildesipramine Norpraminimipramine Tofranilnortriptyline Aventyl, Pamelorand trimipramine Surmentil. The hyperforin content of Ze is 0.

Herbal medicine: biomolecular and clinical aspects. 2nd edition.

Dried flowering tops placed in olive oil caused the oil to turn red after 3 weeks. Other compounds, including the flavonoids rutin, quercetin, and kaempferol, also appear to have medical activity. Kenneth M. The use of this species as an herbal remedy to treat a variety of internal and external ailments dates back to the time of the ancient Greeks.

SJW preparations have relatively few adverse effects when taken alone at the recommended dosages. Flavonoids include flavonols kaempferol, quercetinflavones luteolinglycosides hyperside, isoquercitrin, and rutinbiflavones biapi-geninamentoflavone, myricetin, hyperin, oligomeric proanthocyanadins, and miquelianin, all of which are biogenetically related Reuter ; Barnes, Anderson, and Phillipson Rutin concentration is reported at 1. Leuner et al.

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Recent research suggests the effectiveness of this herb in treating other ailments, including cancer, inflammation-related disorders, and bacterial and viral diseases, and as an antioxidant and neuroprotective agent. Some recommendations regarding future research needs are also presented. By late summer, the flowers produce capsules that contain dozens of tiny, dark-brown seeds.

Herbal Medicine: Biomolecular and Clinical Aspects. Chemical investigations into the constituents of H. The most common classes include naphthodianthrones, phloroglucinols, and flavonoids such as phenylpropanes, flavonol glycosides, and biflavonesas well as essential oils Bombardelli and Morazzoni ; Reuter ; Barnes, Anderson, and Phillipson ; DerMarderosian and Beutler Two major active constituents have been identified: hypericin a naphtodianthrone; Figure Chemical structures of a hypericin, and b hyperforin.

The ancients believed the plant had mystical qualities, and plants were collected for protection from demons and to drive away evil spirits.

Introduction

However, numerous interactions with other drugs have been reported. The LIproduced by Lichtwer Pharma, is standardized to contain 0. Others have used SJW extracts to treat sores, cuts, minor burns, and abrasions, especially those involving nerve damage Blumenthal et al. Since then, it has remained a popular treatment for anxiety, depression, cuts, and burns. Hyperforin, isolated in concentrations of Hyperforin is unstable in the presence of both light and oxygen Liu et al. The loss of the gradient decreases reuptake of the monoamine neurotransmitters.

Extracts of SJW contain several classes of lipophilic compounds with demonstrated therapeutic value, including phloroglucinol derivatives and oils. Over the years, vegetable oil preparations have been used for treatment of hemorrhoids and inflammation. Inhibiting their degradation boosts their levels in the synapse.

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The upper portions of mature plants can produce several dozen five-petaled yellow flowers that are typically 1. Worldwide annual sales of products made from SJW presently exceed several billion dollars. Even more serious symptoms are repeated thoughts of suicide and death Remick Depression is thought to originate from a disruption of normal brain neurochemistry, specifically from a deficiency of amine neurotransmitters like acetylcholine, norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT].

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It was commonly made into teas and tinctures for treatment of anxiety, depression, insomnia, water retention, and gastritis. The product WSproduced by Dr. Tablets contain or mg of extract. The genus Hypericum consists of approximately species of herbs and shrubs having yellow or coppery flowers with four to five petals, numerous stamens, and a single pistil Gleason and Cronquist The stems and branches are densely covered by oblong, smooth-margined leaves that range from 1 to 3 cm long and 0.

Another legend holds that the plant released its blood-red oil on August 29, the day of St. The plant enjoyed continued use as an herbal remedy in the Middle Ages.

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Antidepression drugs typically raise the levels of those neurotransmitters, especially in nerve-nerve synapses Remick Synthetic antidepressants available currently fall into two : 1 tricyclics and 2 selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors SSRIs. The product WS has similar hyperforin and hypericin profile to WSbut has a plant-to-extract ratio of between 2. Thus, activation of TRPC6 by hyperforin le to an increase in sodium uptake by neurons, resulting in a decrease of the sodium gradient between the neuron and the synaptic cleft.

The effectiveness of SJW as an antidepression agent is particularly well studied, and the underlying mechanisms are well understood.

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Hypericin has been shown to have a strong affinity for sigma receptors, which regulate dopamine levels. Capsules contain mg of extract. The hydrogen is therefore in constant flux between the two oxygen atoms when exposed to fluorescent light Smirnov and Fulton Studies examining the fluorescence spectrum of hypericin and its analogs demonstrate the existence of a "protonated" carbonyl group, supporting the H-atom transition mechanism Petrich This hydrogen transfer also causes acidification of the surrounding environment Fehr, McCloskey, and Petrich ; Sureau et al.

It thrives in poor soils, and is commonly found in meadows, fields, waste areas, roides, and abandoned mines and quarries Muenscher ; Klemow and Raynal ; Gleason and Cronquist Due to concerns over phototoxicity to livestock, H. Programs promoting its eradication are underway in Canada, California, and Australia.

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Further, SJW produces dozens of biologically active substances, although two—hypericin a naphthodianthrone and hyperforin a lipophilic phloroglucinol —have the greatest medical activity. Clinical trials using various H. Therefore, it is not subject to the strict scrutiny for safety and efficacy that standard pharmaceutical drugs are required to pass Clement et al. Despite numerous attempts by various researchers, total synthesis of hyperforin has not been accomplished to date Nicolaou, Carenzi, and Jeso Other phloroglucinols include adhyperforin 0.

St. john's wort may ease depression symptoms

The leaves are interrupted by minute translucent spots that are evident when held up to the light. Pharmaceutical companies, particularly in Europe, prepare standard formulations of this herb that are taken by millions of people. Early research suggested that hypericin is the main antidepressant constituent of SJW, stimulating capillary blood flow DerMarderosian and Beutler MAO is involved in the degradation of amine neurotransmitters. This chapter examines the constituents, modes of action, and adverse interactions of SJW, providing an up-to-date synthesis of a large body of literature that has developed over the past 30 years regarding this widely taken herbal remedy.

Several pharmaceutical-grade preparations of SJW are commercially available, typically extracted from dried aerial parts.

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Although hypericin has been reported to have antidepressant properties, it cannot by itself completely for the antidepressant activity of SJW. Recent research focuses on hyperforin as the antidepression agent Cervo et al. The class of compounds isolated from H. The most common naphthodianthrones include hypericin, pseudohypericin, isophypericin, and protohypericin Barnes, Anderson, and Phillipson ; DerMarderosian and Beutler Of these, hypericin—an anthraquinone-derived pigment that is responsible for the red color of SJW oils—is the best known. Blocking the reuptake of serotonin 5-HT from the synaptic cleft alleviates symptoms of depression by allowing the serotonin to bind to 5-HT receptors and elicit a greater response Jones and Blackburn ; Molderings Treiber et al.

NCBI Bookshelf. Sixteenth-century herbalists including Paracelsus, Gerard, and Culpeper all recommended SJW preparations to treat wounds and alleviate pain Foster ; Castleman InParacelsus recommended it for treating depression, melancholy, and overexcitation Clement et al.

Early history

SJW is currently valued for treating depression and other mood disorders. Other compounds of various classes have been identified in H. Additional compounds include, to a lesser extent, acids nicotinic, myristic, palmitic, and steariccarotenoids, choline, pectin, hydrocarbons, and long-chain alcohols DerMarderosian and Beutler Such studies include analyses on the effects of SJW extracts on isolated tissue samples, studies using animal models, and clinical analyses and meta-analyses of humans given SJW extracts. Recent research shows these interactions result from the ability of SJW constituents to induce intestinal or hepatic enzymes that either remove drugs from the body or metabolize them to inactive forms.

Hypericin is found in the flowers, particularly in the black dots that are located along the petals. The Greek physicians of the first century, Galen, Dioscorides, Pliny, and Hippocrates, recommended SJW as a diuretic, wound-healing herb, treatment for menstrual disorders, and cure for intestinal worms and snakebites Foster ; Castleman ; Redvers et al.

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Diagrams of St. A sketch of the lower stem showing leaf arrangement is to the left, and that of the upper stem with flowers is to the right. The edges of the petals are usually covered with black dots. Crushed flowers produce a blood-red pigment. In fact, the generic name Hypericum originated from the Greek name for the plant, hyperikon. Mood disorders are common illnesses that force individuals to seek relief offered by physicians and other health-care providers.

Biochemically, hypericin is a polycyclic quinone, possessing four hydroxyl groups that are positioned adjacent to two carbonyl groups Figure Owing to resonance of the molecule and the relatively short distance between oxygen atoms approximately 2.

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