In Islamic societies like Iran, family plays a fundamental role in the health and soundness of society. This may be due to the availability of financial resources, issues related to household hehip and lack of job skills [ 28 ]. Women he of household are faced with health inequalities and must try to promote their health.
We stopped the process of interviewing when data saturation occurred. After interviewing six women and coding the transcripts, the codes and related to social support, and remainder of money led the researchers toward interviewing several other key informants. Nevertheless, today Iranian women are experiencing a developing transition. Data collection and analyses were carried out simultaneously. We also used follow-up questions and probing to capture a deeper understanding of the phenomenon under study.
The duration of interview sessions ranged from 20 to 80 minutes, with an average of 50 minutes, depending on participants' tolerance and their interest in explaining their own experiences. Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. People can preserve and promote their own health by doing Health promotion activities [ 18 ].
So, even though the domestic roles and family duties are not at all overlooked, Iranian women play a ificant role in the social, economic, cultural and political flow of their country. Among 21 million households in Iran, more than 2. Sixteen women he of household who were residing in three cities of Iran participated in this study.
We recorded the interviews by a digital sound recorder. Contextual factors, including the proportionality between the women and their environment, are very important in the formation or resolution of health problems [ 22 ]. In many cases, they cannot preserve and promote their health. Women he of household are among vulnerable groups in society who are faced with poverty, unsuitable economic status and multiple roles [ 4 ]. Symbolic interaction provides a perspective for studying how individuals interpret objects and other people in their lives and how this process of interpretation le to behavior in particular situations.
Three of the participants were suffering from chronic diseases such as diabetes, coronary artery disease and persian women dating Anchorage AK men failure. Currently, women constitute 27 percent of the workforce and working mothers is a new phenomenon in Iran [ 25 ]. The transitional phase has led to a growing of divorces, an increase in average age at marriage and a lower fertility rate as a result of employment and education among Iranian women.
We explained the aim of the study and the research questions for each potential participant. In other words, each interview provided the direction for the next one. Grounded theory is rooted in symbolic interactionism [ 38 ] and is sets out by researchers to discover patterns of behavior among particular groups of people in specific contexts [ 39 ]. These studies mostly focus on issues such as poverty, social problems and occupational status of these women and nothing has been done on their health promotion and the context in which it occurs [ 29 - 32 ]. Iran, as a developing country, has a population of more than 75 million people, half of which Iranian women are leading different roles simultaneously in society including the role of a mother, a spouse and other social roles as well [ 23 ].
The choice of the research methods basically depends on the nature of the problem that is being investigated.
To help these women improve their health status, we recommended that the government, non-governmental organizations and health care professionals provide them with required resources and increase their knowledge by holding training sessions. In order to perform the caring roles, women must maintain and promote their level of health and well being [ 23 ]. The goal of health promotion is to enhance physical and psychosocial health [ 17 ]. Although there are some studies reporting that the health level of women he of household does not differ from other women [ 5910 ], other studies showed that women he of household suffer from poor socio-economic circumstances and health problems i.
Despite of strong cultural-religious traditions and legal prescriptions [ 27 ], widowhood and increase in the of divorces are two main reasons for the acceptance of household hehip by Iranian women [ 28 ]. Divorced, widowed and separated women are more likely to have problems in paying their medical bills than either single or married women [ 3 ].
To achieve maximum variation of sampling, we recruited women with different demographic and socio-economic characteristics. Data were considered "saturated" when no more codes could be identified and the category was "coherent" or made sense.
They had 0 to 5 children and were all under health services insurance coverage. During the interviews, notes were made about the situation of the interviews and non- verbal als from participants. Grounded theory considers women's perceptions, attributions of meaning, relationships, caring responsibilities, and preferences for interaction in health care field and provides a broad lens for meaningful research into women's health issues [ 34 ]. They were a woman head of household for years with a mean of We started data collection in December, and continued this activity until June, Data were generated by semi-structured interviews.
Head of household is not necessarily the oldest member of the family and can persian women dating Anchorage AK men male or female.
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A myriad of factors influences the type of activities in which persons engage, whether it is helpful or harmful to their health. The and codes from each interview were compared with other interviews in order to identify common links. In some cases, migration of husbands decreased the mental health of their wives [ 15 ].
Examination of social, political, economic, cultural and environmental factors is important to understand community health status and to explain underlying health disparities among different subpopulations [ 21 ]. were related to their sub in axial coding. They are now excelling in academic and managerial positions and are gaining ever-greater achievements.
We analyzed data from the interviews using constant comparative method. Health promotion is a strategy that can help to reverse unequal health outcomes [ 16 ]. These helped researchers develop the interview guide over time.
Factors involved in iranian women he of household’s health promotion activities: a grounded theory study
One of the most important roles accepted by some Iranian women is household hehip. She guides me in solving my problems and never disappoints me. Hence, researchers could carefully select appropriate respondents with different characteristics. We conducted interviews in a private room at their workplace, home or IWO. Our interview guide consisted of grand open ended questions to allow the respondents to explain their own viewpoints and experiences as completely as possible.
They preferred their traditional role as homemakers because of social obstacles [ 26 ]. We aimed to explore and describe factors involved in the health promotion activities according to lived experience of Iranian women he of household. Exploring the family evolutions in the world reveals that the of women-headed households has been increased in the past fifty years and there has been a steady increase in the of women-headed households in developing countries [ 5 ].
Other key informants used were other women who were not under coverage of IWO for the purpose of filling the gaps. The philosophical underpinning of this study is based on symbolic interactionism [ 34 ].
Sixteen women he of household were recruited. In order to understand how women he of household improve their health, the context in which they live and the factors that are involved in their health promotion activities should be taken into consideration. We used purposeful sampling for the initial interviews and continued by means of theoretical sampling, according to the emerging codes and [ 37 ].
Each interview was transcribed verbatim and analyzed before the next interview took place.
Some of these factors are socioeconomic status, skills, culture, religion, and gender [ 20 ]. Symbolic interactionism has ificant potential to increase the understanding of human health behaviors [ 35 ]. During open coding, each transcript was reviewed multiple times and codes were generated from the respondent's words and the researcher's constructs. The criteria for selection were women he of household who had taken charge of their families for any reasons, and had at least one year of experience of household hehip.
Persian women dating Anchorage AK men, health promotion is a complex phenomenon that is influenced by personal and social factors that vary widely among women [ 19 ]. The qualitative method of grounded theory was chosen to capture the reality of the health promotion activities of women he of households living in Iran. Data were generated by semi structured interviews. Therefore, Iranian society suffers from dearth of context based studies on this issue, and it seems that qualitative research methods can really clarify factors involved in health promotion activities of these women.
There are various definitions about head of household [ 56 ] but in this study, head of household is defined as one of the family members who is responsible for the provision of entire or an important part of family expenditure or decision making about how to spend the income of the household. Grounded theory is a methodology that allows formulating orderly abstractions from the real life data [ 36 ].
For participants' convenience, we conducted the interviews at the time they felt their workload was lower and had enough time to be interviewed. Open, axial and selective coding was applied to analyze the data [ 37 ]. As the participants consented to participate in the study, interview appointments were determined. Some studies also showed that lone mothers are more likely to have long term illnesses and die more often than married mothers [ 1314 ]. Hence, Iranian women are considered as the axis of the family's harmony and tranquility [ 24 ]. Grounded theory was used as the method.
Obviously, in single-person households, the same person is the head of household [ 7 ]. Social workers in IWO introduced participants who were more cooperative to the researchers.