There were no African Americans in the county recorded in the United States Census prior to when 17 persons of color were enumerated. The rest of the household included Delilah Hill, age 40, born in Ohio, three Hill children born in Indiana Henderson, age 9; Eliza, age 6; and Lydia, age 3.
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It would appear they relocated east across the county line to neighboring Jay County, Penn Township. An African Methodist Episcopal Church was established in the area around Township population censuses confirm that only scant s of blacks lived outside the city of Fort Wayne during this time period.
They worked as farm laborers, housekeepers and barbers.
Over the past 30 years, various research projects related to early black settlements have been completed by independent researchers, college professors and students, IHS, Indiana Humanities, Ball State University, Conner Prairie and Indiana Landmarks. In the Hill family was still living in Penn Township, Jay County, in a somewhat different configuration. The other family enumerated in the census resided in Blue Creek Township.
This was about a twenty-year age difference from the census.
Early black settlements by county
By Jefferson Hill, a Virginia native was a year-old farmer. Gilliam purchased a total of acres of land two miles north of Big Springs in Marion Township in aboutafter a brief stay in Rush County, Indiana. Thornbrough, Emma Lou. The Negro in Indiana before a Study of a Minority. An adult son, William Hill, Jr.
William Hill, Sr. The census reports a total of seven African Americans and by there are zero persons of color listed in Adams County.
Learn about the experiences of early residents and how they grappled with pivotal and ongoing issues of freedom, equality and faith. The Jefferson Hill household was gone from Blackford County. William Lewis owned a mill near Monmouth in the s—early s. Hanna Addition residents had several occupations including barbers, coopers, plasterers, cooks, laborers, and domestics.
In later years after the emigration of the colored people the locality was changed to a more modern name that of Smokey Row. Federal Census Gibbs, Wilma L, ed. Located in the Hanna Addition, this settlement, as noted by J. It comprised as many as 30 families in the census. First, in the s the Ku Klux Klan established a strong presence in the county.
Sixth Census of the United States, Washington, D. Census Office, Ninth Census of the United States, Government Printing Office, Though it does not appear that Allen County had an antebellum African American rural population cluster, there was an urban settlement in Fort Wayne. Indianapolis, Ind. Jay County Interim Report. Audrey C. The nineteenth century African American population in Blackford County was minimal.
Early black settlements by county
Frazier, 36, the latter two whom work on the railroad. Bloomington: Ind. Indiana Negro Registers Bowie, Maryland: Heritage Books, Vincent, Stephen A. Bloomington: Indiana University, It boasted of having the finest and vastly fertile prairie land VanNatta. In the federal census indicated a total of thirteen free people of color residing in the county distributed as follows: Washington Township, population 2; Licking Township, population 1; and Harrison Township, population The ten individuals in Harrison Township lived in a single household headed by Jefferson Hill.
According to the early censuses, there were no African Americans living in Benton County from through Inthere were 6 people, all single individuals from Kentucky, Indiana and Illinois, whose surnames were Corington, Curtes, Shelby and Wheat.
Heller, Dick D. Decatur, Ind. Bureau of the Census. Hill and his wife, Anna, were born in Virginia.
Of the three children living with William and Anna, at least two were born in Ohio. Jefferson Hill was still farming, and Sibby Sibba Hill was still alive at ! Masked and robed participants took part in large public rallies. His family ed for 9 of 10 African Americans recorded in Root Township in the census.
This property was located on the south side of Jefferson Street. This continued to decline, dropping to less than 50 African Americans by the census.
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Bloomington: Indiana University Press, When Boone County was formed init had 2 free persons of color, according to its census. A planning grant from Lilly Endowment Inc. The black population of Adams County was minimal in the nineteenth century.
Dick Heller lists eleven individuals by name in a history of the county. These untold stories have the potential to evoke pride and add a level of complexity to our understanding of black heritage and Hoosier history. Indianapolis: Historic Landmarks Foundation of Indiana, Robbins, Coy D. Black Pioneers in Indiana. Blackford County Interim Report. Kirby, J. Quinn, Angela M. Stith, Hana L. Fort Wayne, Ind.
Bartholomew County was formed in According to federal censuses, the total of blacks and mulattos was 6 in including the Nancy Tyler and James Minor families34 in82 in6 inand 42 in The majority of these residents lived in Columbus Township and the city of Columbus.
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In the coming decades, there was evidence of racial isolation in the county. With the exception of a handful of monographs, graduate papers and journal articles, few publications have been written that focus on this history. Three men from these families were also the trustees for the African Methodist Episcopal Church.
Records indicate that Lewis made the first of several land purchases on February 6, Lewis died in It may have been in the state of Ohio. Many of the families that were in the census are also listed in the Register of Negroes and Mulattoes for Bartholomew County. Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Society, Handley, Shirley S. Heller, Herbert Lynn.
The household included 2 males under 10; 3 males 10 to 23; 1 male ; 2 females 10 to 23; 1 female 24 to 35; and 1 female 55 to In the overall black population in the county dropped to eleven with seven people residing in Licking Township and four people residing in Harrison Township.