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Paleo-Indian-period American Indians are nomadic and hunt large animals for food. They also eat small game and wild plants.

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Some minor elements of Mississippian culture can be found in various parts of our state, particularly in pottery types or religious or political ornaments. They also hoped to gain back some of the lands they had lost to the Whites. Colonists sent troops that defeated the Indians. The United States government promised to protect the Cherokee land from further settlement. At the start of the French and Indian War —they ed the British and the colonists in fighting the French. Measuring the involvement of historic North Carolina Indians with those large, powerful Mississippian groups is very difficult.

Evidence suggests that their population grew rapidly and that they settled throughout Canada, the Great Plains, and the Eastern Woodlands, which included the North Carolina area.

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Others fought back in battle but lost and were forced to give up their lands. They relied instead on oral traditions, such as storytellingto keep records of their origins, myths, and histories. They were militarily aggressive and fought battles to gain and defend group prestige, territories, and favored trade and tribute networks. At that time more than thirty Native American tribes were living in present-day North Carolina.

These diseases, such as smallpox, measles, and influenza, killed thousands of natives throughout the state. In President Martin Van Buren acted on a policy established earlier by Andrew Jackson and sent federal troops to forcibly remove the Cherokee to the newly established Indian Territory in present-day Oklahoma.

According to terms in that treaty they were to move out of the area between the Neuse and Cape Fear River s.

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These battles, as well as war with other Native American tribes, also killed many. Some Cherokee avoided the troops and stayed behind in North Carolina. Some Archaic people may have used watercraft, particularly canoes made by digging out the centers of trees. Tensions between White settlers and the Tuscarora increased as White settlements in the Coastal Plain grew.

These Archaic Indians did not have three things that are commonly associated with prehistoric Indians—bows and arrows, pottery, or an agricultural economy. Inbefore the arrival of the first permanent European settlers, more than one hundred thousand Native Americans were living in present-day North Carolina.

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Though remains of their settlements can be found throughout North Carolina, these Indians tended to live in semi permanent villages in stream valleys. They hunted and fished and gathered food when deer, turkeys, shad, and acorns were plentiful. During the Ice Age, ocean levels dropped and revealed land that had ly been under the Bering Sea. Native American ancestors walked on that land from present-day Siberia to Alaska.

Our present knowledge of prehistoric inhabitants of this state depends on rare early historical s and, especially, on information gained through archaeology. But they also began farming to make sure they had enough food for the winter and early spring months, when natural food sources were not available.

The Algonquian-speaking Indians met by the Roanoke Island colonists reflected some Mississippian influence, as did the later Cherokee.

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By that had fallen to about twenty thousand. Some White traders cheated the Tuscarora. But land-hungry Whites ignored this promise and continued to settle on Cherokee land. Used by permission of the publisher. Many species of animals roamed the forests and grasslands of our area, including now extinct examples of elephants mastodonswild horses, ground slothsand giant bison.

About twenty thousand Cherokee were forced to leave. Another one thousand had been captured and sold into slavery. They spoke languages derived from three language groups, the Siouan, Iroquoian, and Algonquian. In the Coastal Plain Regionmost of the smaller Algonquian-speaking tribes moved westward in the face of growing s of white settlers. Conflicts continued into the s.

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But as White settlement continued, the federal government began thinking about removing the Cherokee and other Native Americans living east of the Mississippi River. They cleared fields and planted and harvested crops like sunflowers, squash, gourds, beans, and maize. Some made treaties with the Whites, giving up land and moving farther west. The Tuscarora retaliated by attacking more towns.

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Most of the Indian groups met by early European explorers were practicing economic and settlement patterns of the Woodland culture. They thought that if the British won, the British government would protect their land from further settlement. The Woodland Indians also developed bow-and-arrow technology. None of the prehistoric Native Americans who lived in North America had developed any sort of written language. But when some Cherokee were killed by Virginia settlers, the Cherokee began attacking White settlements along the Yadkin and Catawba River s.

Over four hundred years ago, English colonists trying to settle on Roanoke Island encountered many Native Americans along the coast.

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In a treaty, the Cherokee gave up all lands east of the Blue Ridge Mountains. The fates of the three largest Native American tribes—the Tuscarorathe Catawba, and the Cherokee —are examples of the fates of the other tribes in North Carolina. Of the five thousand Catawba estimated to have been living in the Carolinas in the early s, fewer than three hundred remained in In the Mountain Region lived the Cherokee.

They were defeated and made peace in In return for this peace, the British promised that no White settlements would be allowed west of the Appalachian Mountains. Download MP3 audio. They also spent considerable time gathering wild plant foods and may have caught shellfish and fish. What happened to the Native Americans? During the American Revolution —the Cherokee sided with the British. Some settlers even captured and sold Tuscarora into slavery. With a bow and arrowIndians could hunt more efficiently, using single hunters instead of groups of hunters.

They had a hierarchical society, with status determined by heredity or exploits in war. Unlike Europeans, Native Americans had no resistance, or immunity, to diseases that the Europeans brought with them.

Archaeologists can trace the ancestry of Native Americans to at least twelve thousand years ago, to the time of the last Ice Age in the Pleistocene epoch. Spring Listen to this entry. These first inhabitants of North Carolina were nom, which means they moved frequently across the land in search of food and other resources. A treaty created a boundary between Cherokee and White settlers. For personal use and not for further distribution. Up to one thousand four hundred Tuscarora had been killed in the war. Mississippian Indians were more common in other parts of the Southeast and Midwest.

The surviving, often flamboyant artifacts from Mississippian Indian sites reflect the need that those individuals felt to show their status and glorify themselves. They grew crops of maizetobacco, beans, and squash, spent considerable time hunting and fishing, and lived in small villages.

But disease, especially smallpox, killed many. During the war, Cherokee and Creek Indians attacked White settlements. Archaeological evidence suggests that Woodland Indians were much more committed to settled village life than their ancestors had been. The climate on the eastern seaboard was wetter and cooler twelve thousand years ago. War with native Greensboro dating free tribes also reduced their. The settlement of New Bern in took up even more of the Tuscarora land and may have provoked the Tuscarora Indian War — Later in the Tuscarora agreed to a peace treaty.

The path they took has been called the Trail of Tears because so many died on this journey west. Please submit permission requests for other uses directly to the museum editorial staff. Ancestral Cherokee Indian groups in the Mountains adopted some of the Mississippian ways. Paleo-Indiansas archaeologists call those first people, hunted for these animals in groups using spears.

Other animals, now absent from the Southeast, included moose, caribou, elk, and porcupines. Archaic peoplelike their ancestors, were nom.

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They traveled widely on foot to gather food, to obtain raw materials for making tools or shelters, and to visit and trade with neighbors. Settlement by European Americans also pushed many Native Americans off their land. Evidence also suggests that some Native Americans adopted religious and political ideas from a fourth major prehistoric culture, called Mississippian. Woodland Indians followed most of the subsistence practices of their Archaic ancestors.