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Lee is a middle class white male with no black female friends, rare interactions with black families growing up, and who states his interactions with black women only consist of work-related experiences. Yet, he expresses strong negative views of black women as unattractive and uneducated as the first thoughts that come to his mind.


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Edited by Jennifer A. Young Black men are stereotyped as threatening, which can have grave consequences for interactions with police. We show that these threat stereotypes are even greater for tall Black men, who face greater discrimination from police officers and elicit stronger judgments of threat. We challenge the assumption that height is intrinsically good for men. White men may benefit from height, but Black men may not. More broadly, we demonstrate how demographic factors e.

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In those segregated communities is when Black Buxton community members witnessed the horrendous nature of racism and discrimination. Inat the 11 th annual meeting, held in Sioux City, club members voted to endorse George H. In this and other instances, the group pointed to the history of Black participation in fights for independence as in the Haitian and American revolutions as a demonstration of their capacity and their fitness for citizenship.

You were more likely to be stopped for questioning by the police. Denise Pate Spruill, who earned her Ph. First, women used the annual meetings to practice and demonstrate their speaking skills and their ability to grapple with important issues. The life expectancy of the miners was shortened due to days being long and dangerous.

Only later was she recognized for her contribution to civil rights in Iowa. This blog post highlights that digitized material, but we hope that once the pandemic has subsided, you will be inspired to visit the State Historical Society to see what else makes up this remarkable collection.

In the census, the town boasted about the community having 2, Black Americans and 1, White Americans. My main concern was simply finding that certain document or photograph or piece of correspondence that would aid me in my research or simply out of interest. Although Iowa had laws against segregation, they were not consistently enforced. There are many decisions to make regarding the organization of a set of papers. Which folders should I make? In a way, it highlighted the members of upper-class while recognizing that they faced conflicts as well. Iowa girls dating black guys Gaines, who moved from a deserted coal mining town to Buxton, the thought of his new community becoming a ghost town set in as a reality once people began moving out.

The couple and their growing family settled in Bettendorf, Iowa in Ernest Rodriguez was part of an extended interracial family that included his mother and father, eight siblings, relatives in Mexico, and the families of his maternal aunt and uncle, Monroe Milton Adams, Jr. Latinos and African Americans shared many experiences in Iowa, including racial stereotyping; limited employment opportunities that often relegated men to the most dangerous, low-paying work and women to domestic service; housing discrimination; and segregation in churches, movie theaters, barbershops, and schools.

Constitution, granting women the right to vote. During my time as an intern, I processed the personal papers of Madgetta Thornton Dungya professional Black woman who found success in education administration at college campuses across the United States. Though, Buxton had it struggles, people from all walks of life were able to live together in harmony. The Reuben Gaines memoir from the Frances Hawthorne collection details wise anecdotes, notable events such as Madame C. Walker visiting Buxton and the rise and fall of this ghost town.

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On a lighter note, the description of what life was like for those of different socio-economic backgrounds was most riveting. Originally, I predominantly looked at research from the perspective of a student historian. The lack of demand for coal due to the change in machinery drove people out of Buxton and into neighboring mining towns or segregated communities such as Waterloo and Des Moines.

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My experience at the IWA has led me to pay attention to how materials are grouped and to consider why they may be organized the way that they are within the collection. It also marks the th anniversary of the passage of the Fifteenth Amendmentwhich granted universal suffrage to African American men, but not women, following emancipation and the Civil War. In the years between andwomen across the nation continued to fight for the right to vote and worked to actively demonstrate their fitness for the full rights of citizenship. In honor of Latinx Heritage Month September 15 — October 15this post draws attention to an individual and family history that sheds light on the intersection of Black and Latinx experience and activism in Iowa.

This is true today. Thank you to the State Historical Society of Iowa for helping us share these remarkable records and to Dr. Denise Pate Spruill for providing a rich historical context for the Proceedings. How will each series fit into the larger collection? Annual meetings were held in cities across the state and brought together officers, delegates, and club members to hear reports on club business, listen to speeches and papers, and pass resolutions that aled their commitment to particular projects.

The ongoing fight for racial justice is Iowa history.

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But bythe population dwindled down to about people and around is when the last mine in Buxton closed. People seeking change today might be interested in Edna Griffin, who led a boycott of the Katz Drug Store in Des Moines, Iowa, in and pushed persistently for what she knew was right, even at personal risk. As I placed her teaching certificate from next to her CVs and academic transcripts, I saw the hard work and dedication Dungy put in her education and professional life. As a successful professional, her papers illustrate what it is like to be a Black woman in the professional sphere during the mid to late 20 th century.

Finally, African American clubwomen used their voices and political influence to demand that white public officials take a stand against lynching and racial violence. After first-hand experience with processing a set of papers, I can see that there are so many more connections to be made, even within one single set of papers. The once prosperous coal mining town, Buxton, Iowa, approximately thirty minutes southwest of Oskaloosa was the home of hardworking Black citizens from the Virginia to immigrants from Sweden and Slovakia.

Black Americans being the majority populace of Buxton, coexisting alongside White Americans, with no true sense of segregation or discrimination made this town noteworthy. It seemed that a disproportionate of minorities were arrested and convicted for crimes than whites.

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Even after he retired from his position as Equal Employment Manager at the Rock Island Arsenal in the s, Ernest Rodriguez remained active in the Davenport LULAC council and regularly wrote opinion pieces published in local newspapers about racial justice. However, to the citizens of Buxton, the risk was worth the reward. The encounter resulted in a criminal case, a prolonged court battle, and a boycott of Katz Drug Store. Following a visit from journalist and activist Ida B. Wells inBlack women in Des Moines formed an anti-lynching organization. During it all, Katz and his defenders tried to portray Griffin as disruptive and stirring up trouble rather than as a woman who had been denied her rights under Iowa law.

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Each of these decisions has the capacity to impact future researchers looking at those papers and how they are presented to the public through such means as written papers and presentations. Do you want to know more about how these and other Iowa women campaigned for the ballot directly? As a history student, and a historian interested in the postwar era Black Freedom Struggle, I was most interested in these materials out of the whole collection.

My time at the IWA has allowed me to develop the skills that aid in analysis and organization regarding a wide range of materials in and contexts surrounding archival collections. Her FBI files, gathered between andare a testimony to the skepticism and derision she confronted on a daily basis.

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Should it be chronological? She became a dynamic, complicated, and multifaceted person with interests, goals, and relationships. Certain taverns and restaurants you avoided for the same reason. Rodriguez recalled. Along with the various tales, Gaines Jr described the range of personalities you would find in Buxton.

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Additionally, I really valued the support I received from Erik and Heather over the course of my internship in the archives and regarding prospective graduate study. How should the original organization of the creator be preserved? I would specifically like to thank Janet Weaver and Anna Holland for their guidance and assistance in the archives. During the s, the United States remained a largely segregated country. When the Rodriguez family moved to Davenport, Iowa in the late s, they immediately faced a petition campaign organized by white residents who wanted to drive them out of the neighborhood.

The kids in the neighborhood were all white and when they got mad at you, they [hurled racial insults].

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Madgetta Dungy became more than a name on a file. What I learned in the archives has added a layer of complexity to how I conceptualize historical research.

You can view these documents in the Iowa Digital library. Both migrated north and, eventually, to Iowa in pursuit of new opportunities in the s. Due to a strenuous effort by the Des Moines branch of the NAACP, the law was amended again in so that violations could be heard by a local magistrate rather than a grand jury.

A lesson that I took from that experience is not to necessarily trust everyone with your goals because you never know the intentions. I have greatly appreciated my time in the IWA over the summer and I am grateful for the opportunity to contribute to an archives so crucial to the University and the Iowa City community.

You can about these records here. Benjamin Buxton was the namesake of and main planner of the town of Buxton, then he took over as superintendent from his father, John Buxton, in until The town thrived in its early days on the high demand for coal. Hudson needed to make a purchase, so Griffin and Bibbs decided to sit at the lunch counter to order ice cream sundaes. A waitress came over, took their orders, then proceeded to fulfill them.

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My time at the IWA has certainly set me up for success, as it has allowed me to learn more about what goes on behind the scenes in an archives, what archivists have to consider when processing various collections, and allowed me to develop new skills in research and navigating archival spaces as a historian.

The physical records contain material related to over sixty years of club business, including two scrapbooks filled with meeting programs, photographs, newspaper clippings, and correspondence. In recognition of his lifelong activism for the causes of labor, education, and civil and human rights, Ernest Rodriguez was inducted into the second Iowa Latino Hall of Fame in Although Rodriguez identifies strongly with his Chicano heritage, his own experience growing up in an interracial family undoubtedly informs his broader commitment to fighting against the racism, discrimination, and inequality shared by Latinos, African Americans, and other minorities in Iowa and the U.

A large selection of that material is available in the Iowa Digital Library.

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In Iowa CityPhiladelphiaChicagoSeattleand elsewhere, peaceful protests have faced backlash from citizens and the police. I remember that it was then I began to really know what prejudice and discrimination meant, because I felt it all around me. How should I order the folders? As a student interested in the history of civil rights and social justice, I knew that this collection would give me the chance to gain some archival skills while also being immersed in a field that fascinated me. The series ran weekly during Black History Month, and will continue monthly for the remainder of This past summer, we have seen a nationwide movement for change.

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He stands as an example of the power of community activism and the impact of local leaders who relentlessly work to promote social justice at the local, state, and national level. These brutal scenes of racial violence and white spectatorship had apparently been disseminated in Iowa, including in Cedar Rapids and Des Moines.

These examples illustrate some of the ways that Black clubwomen built political skills and exercised political influence long before they gained access to the full privileges of citizenship.