Natural yeast will ferment this mixture making it attractive to codling moths.
However, alone they are not useful for control. Potentially they may help suppress codling moth populations if applied repeatedly to coincide with periods when codling moth eggs are present, although effectiveness in home orchard settings has never been studied and should be considered experimental.
There are several traps that can be used in management of codling moth. Early maturing varieties take less management time because they are harvested sooner while later maturing varieties are still on the tree and at risk of infestation from the third generation of codling moth.
Burlap, tied to the trunk, may also be used as a band. For controlling codling moth these mixtures should be placed in an open container e. These will attract males only and have no effect on females.
Trunk banding involves purposefully providing areas for pupation, so that the insects can later be destroyed. Control of this insect can be difficult due largely to the feeding habits of the insect, but several measures may be used in home orchards to effectively manage codling moth. Trunk Banding. There is no one-size-fits-all best management strategy for all homeowners wishing to manage codling moth. The cocoons are typically found beneath bark and underneath debris around the base of the tree.
Homemade Lures. Successful pupation of codling moth is dependent, in part, on there being adequate sources of cover. Rarely, codling moth larvae have been found in cherries, peaches and large-fruited crab apples. However, due to the serious nature of codling moth injury, where a single larva can destroy a fruit, the natural enemies present for codling moth often will not provide control that is fully acceptable. Eggs are deposited singly on apples and leaves.
Although control of codling moth in these crops is not necessary, infestations in crab apples can be ificant sources of codling moth that may later migrate to nearby apple and pear trees. The body of the growing caterpillars turns from creamy white to a slight pink color and the head and thoracic shield are brown or black. Many moths, including codling moth, can be attracted to fermenting sugar-based lures.
Trapping that captures females may also provide some control. They emerge from the fruit and seek a protected site where they spin a cocoon. Successful entry of codling moth larvae is favored at sites on the fruit where there is some protection. The larvae tunnel through the apple, ultimately reaching the core where they feed on the developing seeds.
Contact your local county Extension office through our County Office List. Brown excrement is piled around the entry point and where they exit the fruit. Earlier emergence may occur if the insects spent wintering next to a building or other warm area. Within 24 hours of hatching the larvae burrow into the fruit.
Larvae that emerge from fruit in mid-late summer do not pupate until the following spring, spending winter as a full-grown larva within the cocoon. Mating occurs within a few days of adult emergence followed by egg laying.
Varietal Differences. Thinning fruit to prevent this can result in reduced fruit attacks. A common point of entry is where two fruit are in contact Figure 8. There are some commercial orchards which utilize bug zappers or light traps to reduce codling moth populations.
During the growing season bands should be checked frequently every week or twoduring periods that coincide with the end of a generation, the time when the full-grown larvae are moving to pupation sites. Such monitoring allows more effective and better targeted use of insecticides and is discussed below.
The body will turn from creamy white to a slight pink color. A common lure involves molasses diluted about in water. Mating disruption is a technique where sex pheromones of an insect, used for detecting mates, are placed throughout an area to saturate the environment with the pheromone.
The general coloration is grayish in appearance with narrow alternating bands of white. There are some small differences in susceptibility based on fruit firmness, with firmer fruited varieties being somewhat less susceptible.
As the caterpillars grow, they molt repeatedly going through five larval stages instars before they become full-grown. Trichogramma waspsminute parasitic wasps that develop in the eggs of various moths, are available from several suppliers of biological control organisms. Flaps of bark that may develop on older trees also provide pupation sites and these should be eliminated. Pheromone Traps.
The sex pheromone produced by females to attract male moths can be produced and used as a lure Figures 11a and 11b. Removing sheltering debris from the vicinity of the base of the tree can deny cover. Larvae that are overwintering within the band can be removed any time after apples have been removed from the tree and before the emergence of adults the following spring. This is a ificant expense and not widely practiced. Larvae that are present in late spring and early summer pupate within the cocoon and subsequently produce a second generation; a third generation may also be produced in some locations.
Eggs hatch in six to 14 days, depending on temperature. Print this fact sheet. There are great many natural controls of codling moth, including some parasitic wasps and a host of generalist predators of insects e. Most readily available are No. A slit cut in the bottom can allow the bag to be slipped over the fruit and the opening is then stapled closed. Bug Zappers. This blend may help provide a minor amount of suppression of codling moth.
Fruit that is already infested and that still contain larvae should be picked and destroyed Figure 9. Fruit Thinning and Removal. The larvae can be killed by crushing or removing and replacing bands. Codling moth larvae can enter fruit at any point on the surface of apples but often attack at areas that provide some cover such as the stem end, calyx end, or where two fruit touch Figure 3.
Individual fruit may be enclosed in a small paper bag to exclude codling moth. Adult codling moths first emerge in spring, typically within days of apple bloom. Although the caterpillars tunnel through the flesh, most feeding is concentrated on the developing seeds of the core Figure 4.
Adding a few drops of soap or other material that breaks surface tension may increase moth captures. Successful management of codling moth is dependent upon many factors such as size and extent of the codling moth population,size and condition of trees, presence of natural enemies, available pesticides, and tree owner attitudes.
Adult codling moths are rarely seen since they are most active during nighttime hours.
Thinning of fruit also makes good spray coverage possible and spray programs are much more successful on properly pruned trees with thinned fruit crops. If successful, males will be unable to locate females to mate and, in the absence of successful mating, only infertile eggs are laid. Fruit that contain developing larvae should be picked and destroyed.
Beer and diluted fruit juices are also sometimes used for making moth lures. Some of these are useful for detecting when moths are active so that critical periods e. The head and thoracic shield are brown or black. Place the cardboard bands around branches at points where there is a transition from smooth to rough bark Figures 10a and 10b. Larval entry into pears, which are harder-skinned, is primarily at the calyx end and attacks of pear occur later in the growing season.
Place the corrugated face of band around branch and staple. Mating disruption for codling moth is widely used in apple and pear orchards and can be very successful under the correct circumstances. As the codling moth larvae leave apples, they will crawl down the branch and move into the corrugated openings as a site for pupation.
Codling moth is the most important insect pest of apple and pears in North America. If there is loose bark on the fruit trees that can provide alternate places for pupation the bark flaps should be removed. Peak emergence can occur within a week of the first moth emergence, but the last moth of the first generationmay not emerge for six or seven weeks. No apples or pears are completely resistant to codling moth.
The addition of pear ester to a pheromone lure will increase captures of males and also capture females. Codling moth spends winter as a fullgrown caterpillar within a silken cocoon, pupating in late winter or early spring Figure 5. A small amount of brownish excrement frass may be present at the entry point. The larvae, which are usually found in the fruit, are creamy white to slightly pink. Traps that incorporate pheromone lures are routinely used to monitor flight activity of codling moth. Infested fruit should be removed from the site as larvae will continue to develop normally in fruit that is merely dropped to the ground.
On unsprayed trees, or on trees where the insecticides used are selective in their effects e.
The of eggs laid per female ranges from 30 to The sting is characterized by a light red circular pattern around the point of larval entry. The tips of the wings are coppery. When full-grown they again tunnel out of the fruit, creating larger wounds. Each egg is about the size of a pin head and is translucent, gradually darkening as the egg nears hatching Figure 6.