Eder et al.
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The authors found that non-exclusivity predicted female, but not male, use or experience of violence. However the authors noted a gender difference -- lower levels of liking and less positive feelings were associated with higher female but not male reports of using violence. Although research and theorizing in this tradition thus provides a general framework for understanding gendered inequalities of power and female victimization, this perspective does not fully illuminate specific sources of variation in male behavior within a given sample, or factors that influence girls' participation in violent acts.
Thus, verbal conflicts, jealousy, cheating, as well as a perceived lack of identity support will be assessed.
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In the same vein, Vivian and O'Leary used audio tapes to analyze affect within communications of aggressive and non-aggressive couples. The stratified, random sample was devised by the National Opinion Research Center and includes over-samples of black and Hispanic adolescents. Where more specific qualities of the relationship have been assessed, there has been an almost exclusive focus on negative dynamics. For example, the nature of the relationship has been defined as of dates, which has been linked positively to a greater likelihood of violence Henton et al.
Both the adult and teen intimate violence literatures have examined controlling behaviors that often accompany physical violence and the relationships between these various forms of abuse O'Leary and Slep, The focus on negative dynamics jealousy, controlling behaviors is intuitive, fits with prior research and programmatic emphases, and will be a focus of our analyses.
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Those who had experienced maltreatment reported a similar of overall uplifts connected to their romantic partners as those who had not experienced maltreatment, and also reported similar levels of happiness associated with those uplifts. Another study Stets and Straus, defined commitment in terms of variations in living arrangements, finding an effect of cohabitation on risk of relationship violence see also Brown and Bulanda, ; Sigelman, Berry, and Wiles, ; but see Kenney and McLanahan, Nevertheless cohabitation is not common during the adolescent period, suggesting the need to explore other dimensions.
Yet many studies of dating violence have relied on convenience samples of college students, who are generally outside the age range of the adolescent period, and whose sociodemographic characteristics and levels of academic achievement do not reflect a true cross-section of teens.
While research has thus shown that length of Cleveland Ohio OH ck women dating, whether defined in terms of duration or of dates, is associated with heightened risk, this does not provide a comprehensive portrait of the relationship characteristics, qualities, and dynamics associated with dating violence.
However, we have included some measures that tap the partner's feelings and behaviors e. Learn More. This basic notion highlights that behavior within the romantic realm may be influenced by but is never fully fashioned on the basis of other, more distal social processes e. A comprehensive assessment requires attention to positive and negative dynamics within these relationships, as well as more general patterns of interaction and influence. In line with these considerations, no ificant differences by gender were observed in scores on a passionate love scale, and in-depth narratives underscored that boys frequently accorded much meaning and ificance to their romantic relationships Giordano et al.
Prior research that has explicitly explored aspects of dating context is limited in scope and attention to subjectively experienced aspects of these relationships. Some researchers have attempted to measure intensity of the relationship, but these studies are also limited in scope.
In summary, while family of origin influences and peer norms are important influences on teen dating violence, it is also potentially useful to develop a descriptive portrait of the relationship contexts within which these behaviors unfold. Power dynamics within teen relationships also require more systematic research scrutiny, since, as suggested above, issues of power and control have been central to discussions of violence within male-female relationships, but have not often been studied directly. While building on insights from social learning and feminist theories, the symbolic interactionist framework is especially useful because this perspective focuses central attention on the relationship context itself.
The present study explores specific features of adolescent romantic relationships associated with the perpetration of physical violence. Roberts et al.
However, we find no ificant differences in levels of love, intimate self-disclosure, or perceived partner caring, and violent relationships are, on average, characterized by longer duration, more frequent contact, sexual intimacy and higher scores on the provision and receipt of instrumental support. However, our multidimensional portrait will also consider more general patterns of interaction and influence duration of the relationship, time spent together, whether the relationship is sexually intimate, perceived partner influence and power balance within the relationship. Finally, violence is associated with the perception of a relatively less favorable power balance, particularly among male respondents.
Another study O'Keeffe et al.
Early research on teen dating violence documented that intimate violence was not limited to adult marital relationships, and highlighted the seriousness of this problem Henton et al. However, while it is critical to study these negative dynamics and their relationship to teen dating violence, it is important to recognize the potential for positive features of relationships to coexist with the more troubling dynamics that have been emphasized in prior research and programming. However, those within the maltreated group did report more hassles related to their romantic relationships, Cleveland Ohio OH ck women dating more stress and depression associated with these hassles.
In addition, a measure of time spent with friends is included, based on the notion that violent relationships may be associated with greater isolation from friends Tolman, We also assess positive features of the relationship, including feelings of love, caring, and level of intimate self-disclosure. However, Kaestle and Halpern, relying on data from Add Health, found that sexual intercourse ificantly increased odds of experiencing partner violence within a focal relationship. Analyses based on the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health Add Health data set, a national probability sample, although school-based, are a useful addition to the research literature, and have aided in providing prevalence estimates across the population.
Halpern et al. School attendance was not a requirement for inclusion in the sample, and most interviews were conducted in the respondent's home using preloaded laptops to administer the interview. A limited of studies have given attention to positive dimensions of relationships, suggesting that a more multifaceted approach is warranted. In addition to documenting the extent of the problem and demographic correlates, research has provided useful information about precursors and correlates of teen dating violence. In general, duration of the relationship is associated with higher risk Burke, Stets, and Pirog-Good, ; Gaertner and Foshee, ; Magdol et al.
A of studies have shown that parental violence is associated with increased odds that young people report violence within their own dating relationships. Relying on personal interviews with a sample of adolescents, indicate that respondents who self-report violence perpetration are ificantly more likely than their non-violent counterparts to report higher levels of other problematic relationship dynamics and behaviors such as jealousy, verbal conflict, and cheating.
Boys also scored lower on perceived power in their relationships, while scoring higher on partner influence attempts and actual influence.
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Such findings thus present a picture of adolescent dating relationships that complicates themes of male dominance and female dependence that have been developed in the adolescence literature in general, and the dating violence literature in particular. Some research within this tradition focuses on the influence of micro-level interaction patterns within the peer group.
Prior research on links between sexual behavior and teen dating violence has often shown an association, but a majority of studies have focused on risky patterns such as early age at first intercourse, of partners, or inconsistent use of condoms, rather than sexual behavior within a particular relationship Howard and Wang, ; Silverman et al.
The analyses to follow focus on respondents' reports of perpetration of violence rather than their experiences of victimization.
For example, greater partner power and influence may be associated with girls' but not boys' reports of violence, and girls in violent relationships may report less time spent with their friends. The multidimensional portrait we develop focuses on both positive e. Based on the of prior research, we expect that physically violent relationships will include more troubling features. In analyzing early romantic relationships, like Maccoby and Eder et al. For example, Arias et al.
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Maccoby also stressed that boys and girls are socialized in two different peer worlds, arguing that when the two sexes begin to interact, the transition is more easily accomplished for boys, who tend to transport their dominant interaction style into the new relationship.
However, a limitation of the Add Health study is that, during the first two waves of interviews, questions were only asked regarding victimization, and only relatively minor forms of abuse e. Feminist perspectives have focused theoretical attention on the dynamics of power and control in adolescent and adult relationships as influences on intimate partner violence.
Because girls have more experience with intimacy by virtue of their early friendship experiences e. Studies of teen dating violence have focused heavily on family and peer influences, but little research has been conducted on the relationship contexts within which violence occurs.
Yet even though TDV necessarily occurs within a relationship context, research on the character and dynamics of violent relationships is limited, with most research emphasizing directly related phenomena such as controlling behaviors and emotional abuse see e. Research has also focused on the demographic patterning of violence within teen relationships particularly the issue of gender disparities and symmetries e.
Prior research on teen dating violence TDV has documented the scope and seriousness of this public health problem O'Leary et al.
Conceptually, most research on TDV is based either on social learning or feminist frameworks. There is general agreement that violence within the context of intimate relationships is emotionally and physically costly Silverman et al.
The absence of research on relationship characteristics is an ironic omission since dating violence, unlike other problem youth outcomes e. Other research has focused on reports from high school students, but the restriction to in-school administrations is somewhat limiting, as this tends to increase refusals due to lack of parental consent O'Keeffe et al. Indeed, prior research has shown that TDV may be ificantly associated with economic disadvantage Cleveland, Herrera, and Stuewig, ; Foshee et al.
We evaluate whether these processes are gendered by examining gender by relationship quality interactions, and include of separate models estimated for girls and boys as well as across the sample as a whole. They found that the aggressive and non-aggressive couples did not differ in their reports of positive and neutral content and affect, but observed more negative content and affect within the aggressive couples' ten minute interactions.
In short, it is somewhat more intuitive to connect respondents' own feelings to their own actions. Thus, it is possible that more traditionally gendered asymmetries of power and dependence will be observed within those relationships that include physical violence, even though these patterns were not observed across the sample as a whole. In addition, the experience of child abuse has been linked to a greater likelihood of experiencing violence in romantic relationships DeMaris, ; Foshee et al.
This is consistent with a symbolic interactionist perspective that focuses on the situated nature of meanings and behavior, and emphasizes the need to take actors' own perspectives on these relationships into. These findings complicate traditional views of the dynamics within violent relationships, add to our understanding of risk factors, and may also shed light on why some adolescents remain in physically abusive relationships.
These findings are generally congruent with a social learning framework; that is, the idea that these violent repertoires are observed early within the family context and are later enacted within the context of romantic relationships McCloskey and Lichter, Yet a limitation of the social learning perspective as traditionally theorized is that it places all of the emphasis on what is transported into dating relationships, rather than including attention to dynamics within the relationships themselves. A of recent studies, often relying on ethnographic methods, have similarly documented boys' Cleveland Ohio OH ck women dating of vulnerability and interest in intimacy Korobov and Thorne, ; Tolman et al.
Another theme related to power is the notion of coercive control. Boys receive positive reinforcement for a competitive, one-up style of discourse and behavior, and for communications that objectify and denigrate young women. Nevertheless, analyses have not examined links to physical violence within the relationship. The objective of the current analysis is to document variations in the qualities and dynamics of adolescent relationships, and the degree to which such dynamics are linked to the experience of teen dating violence.
Feminist perspectives offer a more complex view in stressing multiple ways in which cultural and peer group socialization practices influence male-female relationships and in turn create the potential for gendered patterns of intimate violence. We find only minor differences i.
For example, Eder et al. Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Consistent with this, those who display caring or other softer emotions are negatively sanctioned by male peers. We estimated a series of models that explored variations in findings resulting from a focus on victimization, perpetration, or the experience of any violence whether as victim or perpetrator. More recently, Gallaty and Zimmer-Gembeck explored psychological maltreatment using the diary method over a seven day period, and analyzed respondents' perceptions of daily uplifts, hassles, and affect.
This is especially problematic because prior work suggests an association between TDV and low academic achievement i. The logic of prior theorizing is that gendered inequalities of power tend to be reproduced at the couple level, although these dynamics have been studied more often among married than younger dating couples Komter, Nevertheless, numerous prevention efforts focusing on teens have emphasized the extent to which violence is linked to issues of power and control, e.
Consistent with this hypothesis, Giordano et al. Stets and Pirog-Good indirectly assessed the experience of jealousy by examining whether the respondent reported involvement in a serious relationship, but the partner was still dating others i. The sample universe encompassed records elicited from 62 schools across seven school districts.
As prior research on both adolescent and adult populations shows, there are strong links between perpetration and victimization most violence includes some level of mutual participation, although the idea of sexual symmetry in violent relationships remains controversial see Makepeace, ; Cleveland et al.
Thus, we focus primarily on the adolescent's own use of violence, because our measurement of relationship qualities concentrates on the respondent's perspectives and feelings about this relationship. These studies generally support the idea that a more complex set of relationship experiences may be related to dating violence see also Larson and Richards, The current analysis will assess a broader spectrum of subjective relationship dynamics, with the objective of understanding the total package of positive, negative, and conceptually more neutral dynamics that link to violent expression within dating relationships.