Risky sexual behaviour involves the and types of partnerships, sexual acts, and sexual orientation. The study will contribute to the body of knowledge on how ethnicity and gender differences influence higher-risk sexual behaviour among youth. We consider religious affiliation because it has been argued that religiosity may discourage risky behaviour and therefore serve as a barrier to HIV infection.
Our confirmed our hypothesis as ethnic origin stood as a ificant predictor of youth sexual behavior among youth in Nigeria.
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This study provides further evidence that in order to promote protective sexual behaviours among youth in Nigeria, social, cultural and gender-specific tactics should be put in place for the prevention of HIV and other STIs. These consequences may include infection with the human immunodeficiency virus HIVother sexually transmitted infections STIs and unintended pregnancies.
There were no differences in sexual behaviour of male and female youth between survey years, so the analysis was not affected by sexual behaviours changing over time. Ethnographic and epidemiological studies have confirmed that adolescent sexual behaviour varies from prevention to liberalism across different cultural groups [ 28 ]. The Igbos from south-eastern Nigeria are family-oriented, possess a strong kinship system [ 36 ], and are highly patriarchal [ 37 ].
Sexual debut at 15 years or younger was defined as early sexual debut.
For instance, [ 26 ] studying the effect of internal migration and premarital sexual initiation in Nigeria found ethnicity to be a key independent predictor of premarital sexual initiation. This study aims to fill that gap. Ethnicity has been described a social group that shares a common and distinctive culture, religion and language. We conclude that interventions that look beyond individual level should be considered in reducing the of youth engaging in risky sexual behavior. Masculinity, on the other hand, requires that men be sexual risk takers and condones multiple partners which, without adequate prevention, increases their vulnerability to HIV [ 1415 ].
Socioeconomic status was considered because the association between socioeconomic status and youth risky sexual behaviour have varied [ 60 — 62 ]. Age may influence sexual behaviour: studies have shown that younger adolescents are at increased risk of HIV infection because they often engage in unprotected sexual intercourse [ 51 — 53 ]. Nigeria is home to about ethnic groups and English is the official language.
It is important to know how cultural norms and gender roles, which vary by ethnicity, may promote or prevent risky behaviour. We also hypothesize that the effect of ethnicity might be different for male and female youth.
There is a need to look beyond individual determinants and include sociocultural contextual factors influencing sexual behaviours of youth [ 5 — 7 ]. Multivariate analysis using a Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to determine the risk factors for early sexual activity among young people 15— Logistic regression was used to predict condom use at last sexual activity and MSP. The median age at first sexual activity was 16 for females and 17 for males. In general, males tend to have more sexual partners than females [ 4546 ], and they also tend to use condoms more consistently than women during vaginal intercourse [ 47 ].
The sexual behaviours among youth measured in this study include early sexual debut, condom use at last sex and multiple sexual partners. Another explanation for this hypothesis is the patriarchal system that exists in many part of Africa; males are in a position of power and authority and sanctions may be severe for females who engage in non-marital sexual behaviour [ 42 ].
Such information could provide insights into ly undetected sexual behaviour in multi-ethnic situations. This increases younger age at first birth and maternal mortality [ 35 ]. This paper adds to the existing literature by going beyond the normal factors associated with sexual behaviour and looking at Appleton women dating nigerian men.
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While studies in demography and public health have acknowledged the role of ethnic differences, the influence of ethnicity on youth sexual behaviour in Nigeria has received little or no attention. The Nigeria Demographic and Health Surveys NDHS forand were pooled to examine the relationship between ethnicity and youth sexual reproductive health, proxied by age at sexual debut, multiple sexual partners MSP and condom use at last sexual activity, among the females and males who reported being sexually active in the four weeks preceding the survey.
Particular ethnic practices may increase the likelihood of HIV infections among young women, for instance, the practice of early marriage in some ethnic groups increases likelihood of infections and obstetric fistula [ 2930 ].
Community based intervention programs should be developed in order to reduce risky sexual behavior among youth in Nigeria. This study specifically seeks to explore the relationship between ethnicity and youth sexual behaviour in Nigeria.
Based on existing studies, we have identified some ificant demographic and socioeconomic predictors of risky sexual behaviours. This is a continuous variable. Other variables considered include HIV knowledge. Early childbearing poses serious consequences to the health and development of young girls [ 3 ].
The three major ethnic groups are differentiated not only by region, but also by religion and lifestyle. Metrics details. This plays a critical role in determining their respective vulnerabilities to HIV. For example, femininity often requires women to be passive in sexual interactions and ignorant of sexual matters, limiting their ability to access information on the risks of sex or to negotiate condom usage [ 13 ].
Ethnic concentration in a particular community can influence youth decision to engage in protective or risky sexual behaviour [ 2639 ].
The s of male youth wereand respectively, giving a total of male youth. The key independent variable in this study is ethnicity. Societal norms and gender-power relations influence behaviour, which may allow positive or negative changes [ 8 ]. Factors that influence sexual risk behaviours differ greatly between males and females and a majority of studies existing have not separated the two groups. The sample consisted of sexually active i. These variables include age, education level, employment status, religious affiliation and wealth status, which is a proxy for household socioeconomic status captured through a wealth index based on household possessions and amenities.
This study uses five variables to capture HIV related knowledge among men and women, these same variables have been widely used in other studies [ 56 — 58 ]. Ethnicity is an important sociocultural factor mediating sexual behaviour in sub-Saharan Africa [ 1617 ] and some studies have concluded that ethnicity may be more important than socio-economic characteristics [ 18 — 20 ].
The unequal power balance between men and women in their unequal access to HIV information, resources and services. This argues that variations in adolescent sexual behaviour are mainly due to cultural norms and practices peculiar to particular groups. This is based on the premise that gender differences in norms for sexual behaviour exist and factors associated with sexual relations vary by sex.
It is important to study ethnicity because it serves as a proxy for different cultural norms which are otherwise hard to quantify. We consider of sexual partners because having multiple partners is associated with disease risk for at least two reasons: first, it reflects the increased likelihood of encountering a sexually transmitted pathogen through having multiple potential exposures, and second, it may reflect an increased probability of choosing a partner with an infection through a riskier pattern of partner recruitment [ 48 ].
However, there is not enough literature on the mechanisms of this association.
Ethnic origin per se does not influence health outcomes, but rather the socioeconomic characteristics of ethnic groups [ 27 ]. The s of female youth in the three cross-sectional surveys wereand inand respectively, giving a total of female youth. This determines the extent to which men and women are able to control the various aspects of their sexual lives, i.
Ethnicity may influence sexual behaviour through cultural beliefs and practices. Cross-sectional data were analyzed separately for males and females because we hypothesized that cultural characteristics of each ethnic origin that predict sexual behavior among youth would differ by sex. Asides increasing of observations, another advantage of combining three different surveys is that it is expected that increasing the overall sample size should lead to reduced sampling errors [ 44 ]. This is because fundamental barriers that would hinder the promotion of youth protective sexual behaviours are deep-rooted within the sociocultural contexts that shape the youth [ 7 ].
The danger of focusing on the individual psychological process alone is that it overlooks the associations of behaviour to social, cultural, and economic dimensions, thereby missing the possibility to fully recognize essential determinants of behaviour. Peer Review reports.
A month reference period is useful for capturing the most recent behaviours and minimizes recall errors [ 4 ]. Therefore understanding the extent to which ethnicity explains differences in youth sexual behaviour is important.
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About 20, girls under the age of 18 give birth daily in developing countries, with Nigeria no exception. This culture has been preserved for hundreds of years and passed down to younger generations [ 38 ].
In this study, we examine the effect of ethnic origin on three measures of risky sexual behavior; age at first sex, condom use and multiple sexual partners among youth in Nigeria. Religion can influence sexual behaviour through intermediate factors such as the age at first sex, marital status, and access to information and services. Gender, class and sexuality are the greatest sources of ethnic stability and instability, even though ethnic boundaries and identities are usually based on language and religion [ 21 ].
Young adults are at risk of negative health consequences associated with early and unsafe sexual activity. Male privilege in the form of traditional titles, land ownership, and decision-making is prevalent and women cannot own land or make decisions. Desired progress has not been made in the reduction of sexually transmitted infections and young people aged 15—24 are particularly at risk due to their high rates of risky sexual behavior.
A separate analysis was conducted for females and males.
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We study youth in the Nigerian context because the country has a youthful population and understanding the influence of ethnicity on the sexual behavior of youth can help them make healthy transitions to adulthood. The middle belt of Nigeria is known for its diversity of ethnic groups, including the Pyem, Goemai, and Kofyar [ 49 ]. The objective is to help planners and policymakers in government agencies and NGOs develop substantive, alternative policy interventions to address risky youth sexual behaviour and its consequences.
Reproductive Health volume 14Article : 16 Cite this article. The focus is on the of sexual partners because multiple and concurrent partnerships are the key mechanism through which STIs and HIV infections are spreading across sub-Saharan Africa. The relationship between ethnic origin and health outcomes has received scholarly attention [ 22 — 25 ].