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are consistent with conflict sensitization theories e. Although perspective-taking and empathy are only modestly associated, it is difficult to parse their separate influences in attenuating electronic aggression.

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Youth from aggressive families did not exhibit increased electronic dating perpetration when they had higher perspective-taking or empathy. As shown in Figure 1bfor both males and females, at low levels of empathy, FOA was associated with greater electronic perpetration, but when empathy was high, the association between FOA and electronic aggression was nonificant. Our findings highlight potential points of intervention for youth, such as skills building in perspective-taking and empathy to break intergenerational cycles of aggression. Electronic dating aggression among emerging adults is prevalent and has adverse consequences, yet factors that increase or decrease the risk for perpetrating electronic Alaska ozawa dating against a romantic partner are understudied.

Males were especially sensitive to the protective effects of perspective-taking. Self-reported race was 0. In the past year, ROS show that the association between FOA and electronic aggression becomes nonificant at perspective-taking values of 0. Electronic aggression is particularly pernicious due to round-the-clock access afforded by electronic devices and the public and indelible nature of digital footprints.

See other articles in PMC that cite the published article.

The university institutional review board IRB approved study procedures. Second, our rate of electronic dating aggression was somewhat lower than other studies of college students e. Covariates were entered at Step 1, predictors entered at Step 2, two-way interactions entered at Step 3, and three-way gender interactions entered at Step 4.

Plot of interactions between FOA and a perspective-taking, b empathy on electronic aggression perpetration against dating partner. indicated that greater FOA during childhood was associated with perpetrating greater electronic aggression against romantic partners.

First, we relied on retrospective, self-report data, which introduce recall bias and shared method variance. The link between FOA and electronic perpetration became nonificant at empathy levels of 0. First, based on intergenerational transmission of violence theories, we tested the link between family-of-origin aggression FOA history and electronic aggression toward romantic partners, using a diverse sample of emerging adults.

National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. J Interpers Violence. The novel contributions of this study are twofold.

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Second, we examined whether perspective-taking and empathy each moderated the association between FOA and electronic dating aggression and explored the moderating role of gender. should be interpreted in light of several limitations. Future studies could use prospective, multiple-informant measures to address underreporting of aggressive events and to capture the direction of effects across time.

Violence and Victims26— For each item, participants rated how often they engaged in the behavior within the past year from 0 never happened to 4 more than 10 times.

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Abstract Electronic dating aggression among emerging adults is prevalent and has adverse consequences, yet factors that increase or decrease the risk for perpetrating electronic aggression against a romantic partner are understudied. The present study extends the intergenerational spillover of aggression to the electronic domain and also identifies moderators of this association. Kelly F. Miller is a doctoral candidate in clinical science at the University of Southern California.

Author information Copyright and information Disclaimer. Furthermore, ificant interactions indicated that perspective-taking and empathy separately buffered these associations. Moreover, given prior findings that females find electronic aggression more distressing than do males e.

Still, perspective-taking and empathy each attenuated the link between FOA and electronic aggression H2. Whereas empathy was similarly protective for both males and females, the buffering effect of perspective-taking was more pronounced for males, with even mild levels mitigating the effects of FOA.

These findings are consistent with research demonstrating that adolescent males are more sensitive to the protective effects of perspective-taking compared with empathy e. Discussion The present study extends the intergenerational spillover of aggression to the electronic domain and also identifies moderators of this association. Given its pervasiveness, it is important to identify factors that increase or decrease risk for perpetrating electronic dating aggression.

Author manuscript; available in PMC Apr Ramos1 Kelly F. Miller2 Ilana K. Moss2 and Gayla Margolin 2. Corresponding Author: Michelle C. State College Blvd. Questions remain, however, regarding whether the intergenerational transmission of family-of-origin aggression FOA extends to the electronic domain and Alaska ozawa dating personal characteristics reduce this association.

Ilana K. She studies adolescent and young adult mental health, interpersonal relationships, and electronic social interactions. In doing so, we identify factors to inform intervention efforts for dating violence in the digital age: Perspective-taking and empathy-building skills may be critical components for university health promotion programs aimed at minimizing electronic dating aggression overall, and with specific impacts for those exposed to FOA.

Michelle C. She conducts research on the intergenerational transmission of aggression, with a focus on behavioral and physiological reactions in couples and families.

Her research focuses on parent—child and romantic relationships, adversity, attachment, physiological regulation, and health. Findings highlight potential points of intervention i.

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The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at J Interpers Violence. Electronic aggression involves using mobile and online platforms to perpetrate hostile e. Cyberbullying among adolescents: The role of affective and cognitive empathy, and gender. Open in a separate window. Electronic aggression in emerging adult dating couples is of particular concern due to its prevalence and adverse consequences as an arena for intimate partner violence.

Findings suggest that those exposed to aggressive family interactions during childhood may be more likely to use aggression as a strategy for dealing with romantic conflicts whether online or in-person. Programs deed to bolster cognitive and affective empathy to reduce anger and in-person aggression e.

Responses ranged from 0 does not describe me well to 3 does describe me well.

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ificant simples slopes in black, nonificant slopes in gray. We predict that higher FOA is associated with more electronic aggression against dating partners Hypothesis 1 [H1] ; perspective-taking Hypothesis 2a [H2a] and empathy Hypothesis 2b [H2b] each moderate the association between FOA and electronic perpetration, such that high levels of perspective-taking and empathy break the link between FOA and electronic aggression. Fourth, our sample was constrained to college students, limiting generalizability, as emerging adults who attend college may exhibit resiliencies relative to those who do not attend college.

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Third, alternative methods e. Measures Electronic aggression perpetration. Figure 1. All values from final step. One item tapped hostile behaviors Sent a mean, hurtful, or threatening or text message ; one measured humiliation Posted something mean, hurtful, or insulting on a social networking site ; and two assessed intrusive, cyber-stalking behaviors e.

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Table 1. Regions of ificance ROS were calculated using the Johnson—Neyman technique to test the limits of observed effects. Perspective-taking and empathic concern.

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As predicted, FOA was associated with increased electronic perpetration toward a romantic partner H1. To our knowledge, this is the first study to link family aggression with electronic dating aggression. Learn More. This investigation advances the literature in two novel ways. Past year electronic aggression against a dating partner was assessed using four items adapted from the How Friends Treat Each Other Questionnaire Bennett et al.

Perspective-taking and empathy mitigate family-of-origin risk for electronic aggression perpetration toward dating partners: a brief report

Despite these limitations, this study expands the intergenerational transmission of aggression to the electronic domain and highlights individual characteristics that may protect emerging adults against this continuity of aggression.

We also explore the role of gender in all study hypotheses, given mixed findings regarding gender differences in the amount of electronic aggression perpetration committed, its target, and its emotional effect e. Two moderators are tested: perspective-taking and empathy. Copyright notice. First, we test the link between FOA history and electronic aggression against romantic partners, using a diverse sample of emerging adults.

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Keywords: dating violence, cyber dating abuse, social media, family aggression. Study hypotheses were tested using hierarchical linear regression. Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think.